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Canadian Forces Base Toronto:
Established as Royal Canadian Air Force Station
Toronto on land surrounding the de Havilland Aircraft of Canada aircraft factory and airfield in Downsview, a factory that built Canadian aircraft such as the Tiger Moth, the Mosquito, the Buffalo and the Twin Otter.
With de Havilland continuing to operate on the south-east side of the base, the RCAF station served as an Air Material Command supply base, providing operational and logistical support to the RCAF's Regular and Reserve Force squadrons in the Toronto area, including the RCAF Staff College and RCAF Institute of Aviation Medicine on Avenue Road. The station would also become home to several former World War II squadrons such as 400 Auxiliary Squadron, with their fleet of Vampire MKIII jet fighters and 411 Auxiliary Squadron, who over the years flew aircraft such as the Avro 621, the Tomahawk, Mustang, Mosquito, Spitfire and Sabre fighters
The base served as a supply base of Air Material Command, in
addition to providing operational and logistical support to the RCAF's
Regular and Reserve Force squadrons in the Toronto area, including the
RCAF Staff College (later the CF Staff College) and the Avenue Road
Detachment. The station would also become home to several former World
War II squadrons.
In 1946, 400 Auxiliary Squadron was re-activated as a part of the
Auxiliary Air Force, with the squadron's Headquarters Unit occupying
space at the Avenue Road Detachment. The Squadron was equipped with
Vampire MKIII jet fighters, flying them initially from the RCAF Station
Malton (now Toronto Pearson International Airport). In acquiring land
for the new air station, the RCAF found it necessary to close Sheppard
Avenue, so as to expand the airfield. The remains of the former
Sheppard Avenue became the main east-west road across the station,
renamed Carl Hall Road.
When DeHavilland moved into their new facilities at the south end of the
airfield, the RCAF took over the old plant facilities, except for Plant
#3 which was still occupied on a leased back basis, an arrangement that
would continue until 1989.
Included in this takeover was the original DeHavilland Plant #1. This
is where the first DHC-1 Chipmunk, DHC-2 Beaver and DHC-3 Otter were
On 1 October 1950, 411 Auxiliary Squadron was also re-activated and both
squadrons began training for their role as auxiliary fighter-bomber
squadrons on various fixed-wing aircraft, including the Avro 621, the
Tomahawk, Mustang, Mosquito, Spitfire, Sabre and others over the years.
The base also became the home of No. 1 Repair Depot and No. 1
Construction Engineering Depot. No. 1 Supply Depot moved from the
Weston Road Site in September 1953, as did the Canadian Air Crew
Selection Unit. 436 (Transport) Squadron re-located from RCAF Station
Dorval on 1 July 1956
VC-920 Squadron of the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service Reserve arrived in 1953 with their fleet of Grumman Avengers and later Grumman Trackers. Markings were painted on the runways so that the Navy pilots could practice simulated carrier take-offs and landings. VC-920 Squadron disbanded in 1964.
Some of the other units in the early days of RCAF Station Toronto were
14 Wing Headquarters, later renamed 2 Tactical Aviation Wing and No. 14
Movement Control Detachment. The Defence Research Medical Laboratories,
later re-named the Defence Research Establishment Toronto, was
established at the Avenue Road Detachment on 1 May 1950. The facility
moved to Downsview in October 1953.
In 1954, the RCAF officially assumed control of the airfield from
DeHavalland and flight activity increased at the station. The C-10
Heavy Transport Aircraft, flown by 436 (Transport) Squadron, were active
at the station from 1956 until 436 Squadron relocated to RCAF Station
Uplands in 1964. The last Lancaster Bomber, FM104, was flown to
Downsview for retirement in 1964. It sat on the Toronto waterfront for
years as a memorial to the RCAF, but is now at the Toronto Aerospace
Museum undergoing restoration.
Residential homes were built for station personnel in 1955. Known in military circles as Private Married Quarters (PMQ). William Baker Park on the north side were for designated for commissioned officers with Stanley Green Park on the south side for non-commissioned members.
The station was re-named RCAF Station Downsview on 1 October 1958 and
re-designated as a base of Air Transport Command. By early 1958, 400
and 411 Squadrons took on a new role as transport-search and rescue
squadrons and the Beechcraft C-45 Expeditors replaced the fighter
aircraft. No 1 Mobile Support Equipment Maintenance Depot, who had the
responsibility of maintaining the RCAF's fleet of vehicles, moved to
Downsview in 1965. Following the disbandment of VC-920 RCN Squadron,
the Headquarters Unit of 400 Auxiliary Squadron moved to Downsview in
October 1964 and occupied the VC-920's former quarters.
In July 1966, with the impending closure of RCAF Station Centralia,
aircrew selection training was transferred the RCAF Personnel Applied
Research Unit (RCAF PARU) at Downsview's Avenue Road Detachment, a part
of the Aircrew Selection Unit located at Downsview itself.
As a result of the Unification in 1968, the base was re-named CFB
Toronto and its support role was expanded to include all Regular Force,
Reserve and Cadet units (Army, Navy and Air Force) in the Toronto
Garrison. The RCAF PARU was re-named the Canadian Forces PARU.
CFB Toronto also assumed administrative control of Canadian
Forces Reserve Barracks Hamilton, establishing a detachment at the site.
Central Militia Area Headquarters (CMA HQ) moved to Downsview after CFB
Oakville closed in 1971. 400 and 411 Squadrons were re-named 400 "City
of Toronto" Squadron and 411"County of York" Squadron and both became
part of 10 Tactical Air Group, a unit of the army's Force Mobile
Command. The Defence Research Establishment Toronto merged with the CF
Institute of Environmental Medicine to form the Defence and Civil
Institute for Environmental Medicine in 1971. In 1979, Aircrew
Selection Unit was re-named the Canadian Forces Aircrew Selection
When the Allen Expressway was built in 1971, Downsview's east-west
runway was closed and a quarter of its eastern portion dissected by the
new highway. Toronto Police now use the severed portion of the runway
as a driver training area for their police vehicles.
In 1980, 400 and 411 Squadrons switched from fixed-wing aircraft to
CH-136 Kiowa helicopters, and by 1982, both squadrons had been re-named
as 400 Tactical and Training Helicopter Squadron (400 T & THS) and
411 Tactical Helicopter Squadron (411THS). The role of both squadrons
by this time was to conduct security and transport duties during such
events as the visit by Pope John Paul II to CFB Toronto in 1984 and the
Toronto Economic Summit in 1988.
In 1990, a restructuring of the Armed Forces resulted in the base being
transferred from Air Command to the Army's Mobile Command. Although
this transfer ended 43 years of Air Force control of the base, CFB
Toronto was still very much an active Air Force Base. Land Force
Central Area Headquarters (LFCA HQ) was formed at Downsview the same
year as part of a new regional command structure for the Army, replacing
CMA HQ, which was disbanded.
The Army's Toronto District Headquarters (TDHQ) moved to Downsview in
1994 from the Avenue Road Detachment, taking up residence in the Otter
Building, which was the original station headquarters. TDHQ was
disbanded in March 1997 and replaced by 32 Canadian Brigade Group
The introduction of the Wing Concept at Air Bases in 1993 resulted in
CFB Toronto being designated as 2 Wing, although this was to be short
lived as more change was in the wind. By 1994, CFB Toronto's
operational importance was declining and along with a reorganization and
consolidation of Canadian military bases in the mid 1990s, there was
little interest in maintaining a full size base. Combined with the
desire of local politicians to acquire some of the land for development,
Downsview's fate was effectively sealed. Plans were made to reduce CFB
Toronto to a Detachment of CFB Kingston, but this was later changed to
outright closure of the base.
CFB Toronto closed on 1 April 1996, the 72nd anniversary of the Royal
Canadian Air Force, along with its Avenue Road Detachment. 400 T &
THS re-located to CFB Borden, where they currently fly the CH-146
Griffon helicopter, and now fall under the command of 1 Wing Kingston.
411 THS, 2 Tactical Aviation Wing and 2 Tactical Aviation Support
Squadron were disbanded and 1 Canadian Forces Supply Depot closed. LFCA
HQ had previously re-located to leased office space on Yonge Street in
1994. The Canadian Forces Aircrew Selection Centre relocated to 8 Wing
Trenton in 1997. Canada Lands Corporation assumed control of the
property and began the process of its disposal.
Parc Downsview Park Incorporated was established in 1998 as Crown
corporation tasked with developing the former base into an urban park.
Garrison Support Unit Toronto, later re-named Area Support Unit Toronto,
was established at the former base in 1996 to provide the local
Reserve, Cadet and remaining Regular Force units in the Toronto Garrison
with administrative, logistical, medical and Military Police support
On 26 May 2000, the former base officially became Downsview Park,
Canada's first Federal Park within a city.
Today, the former RCAF Station Downsview is a mixture of commercial-industrial on the east side and a passive eco-park on the west. All the messes, barracks, administrative buildings (except the base headquarters building) and the recreation centre on the far-west side of the base have been demolished. The east side
is a commercial-industrial centre, with tenants including Bombardier Aeospace,
who assumed control of DeHavviland's facilities in 1992, continue to
occupy the airfield (the oldest active airport), Area 51 Paint Ball,
Downsview Park Sports Centre, an indoor sports complex occupying the Plant 2 hangar,
which includes ATP, Grand Prix Kartways, HoopDome, National Squash
Academy, PEAC, Toronto School of Circus Arts, The Rail Skatepark and
School, Toronto Roller Derby League and Defcon Paintball.
The former Supply Depot building is currently used as a movie studio
and the Downsview Merchant's Market. The Toronto Air & Space Museum
occupies the original De
Plant 1, the oldest aircraft factory left in Canada, having stood since
Gone from the west side of the former base are all the
barracks, messes, the Otter Building, the guard house, the curling club
and the recreation centre, all of which were torn down to create a
passive park. The former row-house quarters on the south-west corner of
Keele Street & Sheppard Avenue were also torn down and replaced
with luxury townhomes.
The former 1970s era headquarters building is now the
headquarters for the Toronto Region Conservation Authority, but the
former Military Police guardhouse, once occupied by the Toronto Wildlife
Centre is currently vacant.
In July 2002, the Department of National Defence opened a new armoury,
named The Denison Armoury, on a vacant piece of land at the former CFB
Toronto to house all elements of ASU Toronto, 32 CBG HQ, 2 Intelligence
Company, 2 Field Engineer Regiment, 25 (Toronto) Service Battalion and
The Governor General's Horse Guards as well as their respective cadet
units. The old Denison Armoury, located just south of Downsview's
airfield on Dufferin Street, formerly occupied by 25 Service Battalion
and The Governor General's Horse Guards, was closed and demolished a
year later. Most of the PMQs are still occupied by military families
and will be for the foreseeable future. As well, DCIEM remains at the
corner of Sheppard and Allan Road.
In 2002, Downsview Park hosted the World Youth Day festivities,
including a big outdoor mass hosted by Pope John Paul II. On 30 July
2003, a SARS relief benefit concert was held, with the Rolling Stones
headlining the daylong event.
In December 2006, Downsview Park was officially turned over to Parc
Downsview Park Inc., the Federal Crown corporation which oversees the
park. However, park management has stated that the former base could
possibly be used in the future as a staging area for crisis management
for terrorist, war or disaster response. Is it possible that CFB
Toronto could be reactivated someday?
In September 2007, 2 Military Police Unit (2 MPU) stood up,
officially all Military Police units (Regular & Reserve Force) in
Ontario, with the exception of Canadian Forces Support Unit (Ottawa)
Military Police Platoon. The unit's headquarters is located at the
Denison Armoury, along with 32 Military Police Platoon (Reserve).
In 2009, the Canadian Forces Housing Authority began the process of disposing of all military housing in Toronto, starting with the demolition of the Stanley Green Park homes that were damaged by the explosion at the nearby Sunrise Propane storage facility in August 2008. The remaining homes are scheduled were demolished in 2012.
All of the William Baker Park homes are currently vacant and will be demolished in the near future.
Both Stanley Green and William Baker Park areas are to be redeveloped. The proposed new development will feature new military housing at Stanley Green Park for the remaining Toronto military families. William Baker Park will feature privately-owned multiple low-rise apartment buildings that will incorporate much of the existing woodlot currently surrounding the PMQs.
Additionally, a new low-rise
residential area is being developed at the corner of Keele Street and
Stanley Green Park Road.
In March 2010, two of Downsview's old maintenance hangars, known as buildings 55 & 58, were demolished after a desperate effort by heritage organizations to save the hangars, built in 1942. This was despite the fact that they had been designated as heritage buildings by the federal government in 1992 for the role they played in Canadian aircraft production during the Second World War.
In September 2011, the Canadian Air & Space Museum, housed in the
original DeHavilland Plant #1 building, received an eviction notice by
Parc Downsview Park, so that a 4-pad ice rink could be built. The
facade of Plant #1, known municipally as 65 Carl Hall Road, would be
retained and incorporated into the new building.
Source Material: DND Press releases from August 1988 &
February 1994, "The Garrison" Newspaper from March 1995, "Borden Armed
Forces Day and Air Show - June 26 & 27, 1999" program guide, The
Downsview Family Tree. - A Historical Summary of the Downsview Lands by
Wayne Kelly (1998), the Toronto Military Family Resource Centre web site
- http://www.pathcom.com/~tmfrc/, Toronto Police web site
www.torontopolice.on.ca, Toronto Star Newspaper 25 May 2000, 8 Wing
Trenton web site -
supplied by the Alberta Aviation Museum (2004), the Toronto Sun
"Downsview Remains At The Ready", published 9 June 2006, Heritage Toronto - http://www.heritagetoronto.org/news/issue/2010/03/05/downsview-hangar-update, nformation supplied by the Canadian Forces Housing Authority (2010) , Parc Downsview Park web site - www.downsviewpark.ca & the
personal recollections of the author (1998 - 2011).
Canadian Forces Base Ottawa (South):
Originally established on 5 August 1940 as No. 2 Service Flying
Training School under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, with
Relief Landing Fields located at Carp and Edwards.
No. 2 SFTS closed on 14 April 1947, but flying training continued until
in 1947, when the Station became home to Maintenance Command
Flying activities resumed at Royal Canadian Air Force Station
Uplands in the early 50s with the arrival of various fighter squadrons,
some of which were re-activated from World War II squadrons. 439 "Saber
Toothed Tiger" Squadron, the first squadron to use the F-16 jet fighter
who, re-formed on 1 September 1951, as did 416 Linx Squadron. Both
Squadrons departed for Europe the following year, 439 Squadron to 1 Wing
North Luffenham and 416 Squadron to 2 Wing Grostenquin, France. 422
Fighter Squadron re-formed at RCAF Station Uplands on 1 January 1953,
but re-located to 4 Wing Baden-Soellingen on 27 August 1953. Others who
called Uplands home were 3 Air Movement Unit and 428 Ghost Squadron, who
flew the Canadian designed Avro CF-100, 434 Fighter Squadron,
originally a bomber squadron, re-formed at Uplands on 1 July 1952 but
transferred to 3 Wing Zweibrucken less than one year later. 412
Transport Squadron, who have the distinction of being the first squadron
to fly jet passenger liners on scheduled transatlantic flights, arrived
from RCAF Station Rockcliffe on 1 September 1955. The Central
Experimental and Proving Establishment, later re-named the Aeronautical
Evaluation and Test Establishment (AE & TE) moved to Uplands from
Rockcliffe in 1957. Today the AE & TE is based at 4 Wing Cold Lake.
410 Squadron, disbanded at 1 Wing in Marville, France on 1
October 1956, re-formed a month later at Uplands as an All-weather
Fighter Squadron for the North American Air Defence Command. The
squadron disbanded again on 1 April 1964. Four months later, 426
Transport Squadron re-located to Uplands from RCAF Station Downsview.
The predecessor of the current of the National Aviation Museum
opened at RCAF Station Uplands in October 1960. Later on, its aircraft
collection was merged with those of the RCAF and the Canadian War
Museum. This led to the creation of the National Aeronautical
Collection. This Collection came under the control of National Museum of
Science and Technology in 1968 and was renamed National Aviation Museum
in 1982. The museum moved to Rockcliffe in 1965.
In 1968, the base was re-named CFB Uplands as part of the Unification,
but by 1972 the name was again changed to CFB Ottawa (South).
In 1970, 450 (Heavy Transport) Squadron, formerly No. 1
Transport Helicopter Platoon of the Royal Canadian Army Service Corps,
moved to Uplands from RCAF Station St Hubert (along with their
detachment from RCAF Station Namao) with their squadrons of Huey,
Labrador, Voyageur and Chinook helicopters. The Squadron was again
re-designated, this time simply 450 (Transport) Helicopter Squadron. 436
Transport Squadron re-located to CFB Trenton on 11 August 1971 where
they currently fly the CC-130 Hercules aircraft.
The 1970s and 1980s were a busy time for Uplands. The Canadian
Forces Airborne Sensing Unit was established in 1971 to conduct testing
using various aircraft including the CF-100 Canuck, Dassault Falcon and
Dakotas. The unit was replaced by a civilian agency, the Canada Centre
for Remote Sensing in 1975.
By the 1980s, the Electronic Warfare Squadron, 414 Squadron at
CFB North Bay had opened a detachment at CFB Ottawa (South). 412 (T)
Squadron was providing air services for the Prime Minister, as well as
VIP transportation around the world.
450 Helicopter Squadron, who were now the only combat ready Ottawa area
squadron, were training as a part of the RCMP Special Emergency Response
Team. The first CF-18 fighter aircraft brought into service was
presented to the Air Force by then-Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau at CFB
Ottawa (S) on 25 October 1982.
In 1993, the base was designated as 7 Wing Ottawa, but this was to be short-lived as there was more change in the wind.
In the mid 1990s, a reorganization and consolidation occurred within the
Canadian Military. Several bases were either downsized, merged or
closed and even though Uplands was in the Nation's capital, it was not
spared a similar fate. As a result, both Uplands and Rockcliffe closed on 1 Apr 1995.
In their place, a support unit named Canadian Forces Support
Unit Ottawa was established at Uplands and National Defence Headquarters
to provide the local Reserve, Cadet and remaining Regular Force units
with administrative and logistical support. 450 (Transport) Helicopter
Squadron re-located to 1 Wing St. Hubert in August 1994.
Today, only small sections at Uplands remain in military hands. The CF Band, the CF Photo Unit, the Military Police, the
CFSU Transportation & Maintenance Section, the Central Material
Traffic Terminal, the CF Crypto Support Unit and the Military Family
Resource Centre remain at Uplands. None of the World War II hangers
remain, but two of the post-war "Arch" hangers and assorted
administrative buildings do remain. Large sections of the former base
contain only empty fields. The Canadian Forces Housing Agency still maintains 147 PMQs (now called Residential Housing Units) for military members.
412 (Transport) Squadron downsized from 120 personnel to only 29, and
relocated to the civilian side of the former Uplands airport. Their
current Headquarters, The Pilot Officer John Gillespie Magee Jr Annex
officially opened on 11 January 1995. Transport Canada now has the
responsibility for the maintenance of the Squadron's remaining four
CC-144 Challenger jets.
The airfield remains in use as the Ottawa International Airport.
Source Material: DND Press Releases from May 1987 & June
1989, "Sentinel" Magazine from April 1970, pg **, & Summer 1971
& May 1974, pgs 12 - 15, the personal recollections of the author
(1998), information supplied by Renald Fortier, Curator, Aviation
History, National Aviation Museum, Rockcliffe, Ontario, 8 Wing Trenton
News Archive - www.8wing.trenton.dnd.ca/archives/news110897.htm, Terry
Martin's "CFB OTTAWA-UPLANDS" web page -
www.totavia.com/terry/cyow/uplands, "Farewell To Rockcliffe" by Buzz
Bourdon, Airforce Magazine, Fall 2004, 412 (Transport) Squadron web site -
http://www.airforce.forces.ca/8wing/squadron/412hist_e.asp, information supplied by the Canadian Forces Housing Agency (2011) & 450 Squadron web page
Established near London in 1885 on farmland belonging to John
Carling, son of the famous brewer, as a training camp for "D" Company of
the Infantry Corps, later re-named The Royal Canadian Regiment -
Canada's senior infantry regiment and the oldest Regular Force infantry regiment. The Militia had used the site for
summer training camps since the mid-1860's. The camp was named Wolseley
Barracks in honour of Field Marshall, the Right Honorable Viscount
Wolseley in 1894. The Regimental Headquarters of The Royal Canadian
Regiment (RCR) moved to Wolseley Barracks in 1923.
Wolseley Barracks, named in honour of Field Marshall, the Right
Honorable Viscount Wolseley, was picked for the site in 1894. The
Regimental Headquarters of The Royal Canadian Regiment (RCR) moved to
Wolseley Barracks in 1923.
On 1 November 1936, the Canadian Tank School was established at
Wolseley Barracks with Captain (later Major-General) Frederic
("Worthy") Worthington, MC, MM, PPCLI as its first Commander. However
it was later determined that Wolseley Barracks lacked the proper
facilities for tank training, so the school was re-located to Camp
Borden on 1 May 1938.
Although this was the training camp for the RCR, this function
was relinquished from 1914-1923 and again from 1939-1953 when Woseley
Barracks was used as a training camp for all of the regiments in the
southwest Ontario region. The RCR resumed training their own in 1953
with the establishment of the Regimental Depot at Wolseley Barracks.
In 1954, the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment (3 RCR), a
Militia Regiment consisting of members from the Canadian Fusiliers and
The Oxford Rifles, was established at Wolseley Barracks to serve
alongside the Regular Force 1st Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment.
As a result of the Unification, the barracks was re-named CFB
London in 1966, although the name Wolseley Barracks continues to be used
today, and it's function changed to that of a Material Command support
base for southwestern Ontario. The Regimental Depot closed in 1968 and a
new tri-service basic training school was established at CFB
Cornwallis. In 1970, 3 RCR was re-designated as 4 RCR while a new
Regular Force 3 RCR was formed at CFB Petawawa.
In 1992, CFB London was downsized to a detachment of CFB
Toronto. 1 RCR departed for CFB Petawawa later that year.
On 1 April 1996 Detachment London closed, but a small portion
of the former base was sectioned off and continued to function as a military
establishment, as did the nearby Highbury Complex. The units remaining at Wolseley Barracks were The 1st Hussars (RCAC), 22 Service
Battalion, 31 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters, 4 RCR, 31 Military
Police Platoon, and Land Force Central Area Training Centre Meaford -
London Detachment. The Vehicle Maintenance Section of 22 Service
Battalion remains at the Highbury Complex. As well, the RCR Regimental
Museum remained in "A" Block,
otherwise known as Wolseley Hall. Wolseley Hall had been designated as a
national historic site. All the PMQ's were sold and are now privately
Of the closed section of the former base, only three buildings remained:
the base gym, which is now the Carling Heights Optimist Community
Recreation Centre, the former century house used as the "Military
Stores", now offices for Block Parents and a maintenance garage, now
empty but used briefly by the City of London Parks & Recreation
Department. All other buildings were torn down.
Garrison Support Unit London (GSU London) was established at
Wolseley Barracks in 1996 to provide the local Reserve, Cadet and
remaining Regular Force units with administrative and logistical
support. GSU London was re-named Area Support Unit London in 1998.
In March 2006, a new support complex opened at Wolseley
Barracks to house the units located at the Highbury Complex. The six
buildings formerly occupied by these units were demolished, thus ending
the military occupation of the Highbury Complex. Building 52 at
Wolseley Barracks was also demolished and it's occupants re-located
to the new support complex.
In April 2013, ASU London was disbanded as part of Department of National Defence cost-cutting measures, ending 16 years of service. Their services were transferred to ASU Toronto.
The London Free Press announced on 15 July 2013 that eight of the buildings at Wolseley Barracks are set to be demolished. Among the buildings to be demolished is ‘O’ Block, built in the Depression and recognized on a federal government list as a heritage building because of “its historical associations, and its architectural and environmental values.”
Also slated for demolition are the three mess halls, two barracks and an office building along the south edge of the site, and the large, L-shaped ‘P’ block near Oxford St.
The three largest buildings that front Oxford St. will remain: The original 1886, U-shaped A block that houses the RCR museum; the 31 Canadian Brigade Group headquarters; and the recently constructed $15-million support-services complex.
Source Material: Information supplied by K. Noble,
Administrator/HR Support Officer, Area Support Unit London (1998),
information supplied by MCpl G.H. Johnson, Assistant Curator, The Royal
Canadian Regiment Museum (1999), Armour School History web page -
http://www.brunnet.net/armourschool/History.htm, DND news release - 23
December 2004, London Community News, 5 April 2012, http://www.londoncommunitynews.com/2012/04/more-than-34-jobs-lost-with-wolsley-barracks-asu-closure, The London Free Press, 15 July 2013 - http://www.lfpress.com/2013/07/15/eight-buildings-at-wolseley-barracks-to-be-demolished-the-free-press-has-learned & the personal recollections of the author (1998 - 2012).